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Animals, as much as humans, love to keep safe from harsh weather. The winter weather is harsh and particularly so on animals as they mostly do not have adequate shelter during the winter months.
Just before winter each year, bats begin to prepare for hibernation. Females form maternity roosts during the summer months and then during the winter, they form hibernation roosts. Normally, many bat species feed on insects but the insect population soon starts to decline due to lowering temperatures. This is an indication for the bats to go into hibernation as food soon becomes scarce.
During hibernation, also known as torpor, bats are able to slow down their heart rate to only a few beats per minute. This in turn slows down their metabolism, ensuring that they survive the period of hibernation without needing to eat. A key factor in ensuring that bats survive hibernation is temperature. If the temperature of the environment where the bat is hibernating is too low, it may freeze to death during the torpor period. If it is in turn too high, it will make the bat consume energy much faster meaning that it would need food before the winter is over and the food may not be available. Therefore, bats always look for an environment where the temperature is optimized for hibernation.